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Construction & working technique
 
The construction & working technic of Sulabh Shauchalaya is very simple. It has the following components :
 1. Pits ::
 
It has two pits. The shape of the pits can be circular, square or rectangular according to the available space. If there is enough space then circular pits are recommended. Circular pits are stronger and durable from the stability point of view. The distance between two pits should be atleast one meter. In case of rectangular or square pits, mid wall is common.
   
  Structure of pits ::
 
The wall of pits is made of 5" thick bricks. We put 6" thick layer of sand in the foundation of the wall. Then a wall of 10" thickness and 6" height is made. Honeycombs are left in the portion of the wall one feet from the top and one feet from the bottom. Honeycomb should not be more than 2" wide. The floor of pits are left raw. The ratio of cement and sand is 1:6 while connecting bricks. If there are two pits adjecent to each other, then the middle wall is made one feet (30 cm.) down the other walls. No honeycombs are left in this wall and punning is done after doing plaster with the mixture of cement and sand in the ratio of 1:4. Honeycombs left in the other wall is put in the middle wall at a distance of one feet. No plaster is done on walls other than middle wall.
   
 
The size of the pit is kept so big that given number of users can use it for 3-5 years. Due to the raw floor and honeycombs in the wall, water and gas get absorbed in the soil. So there is no need of vent pipes. When one pit gets full, which is indicated by the pan then the other drain is opened after closing the full drain. So the stool passes to the next pit. Gradually the stool in the first pit dries and take the form of fertilizers which is odourless. User can take it out and can use it for gardening.This way the same pit is again ready for use. This system goes on and this is the working system of Sulabh Shauchalaya.
   
2. Platform ::
 
The size of the platform can be changed according to the available space. Normally its size is 3'-6" X 3'-6". 5" thick wall is made all around. After spreading 6" thick layer of sand in the foundation, one brick thick soling is done. Then plaster of 3" thick (1:4:8)and 10" wide PCC is done. This is followed by 5" thick wall, upto the desired height of platform, with the mixture of cement and sand in the ratio of 1:4. After closing it with the walls from all sides, sand is filled and pan and water seal are put. Then after putting extra sand , soling of bricks is done. 1/2" plaster & punning is done after flooring the soling with 1" thick (1:2:4) concrete. While flooring , foot rests are placed. After flooring the level of platform should match with the pan.
   
3. Pan, Waterseal & Foot rest ::
 
In this system the pan is designed in a specific way. In comparison with general pans, its slope is kept more sharp. So it takes 2-3 litres of water while desposing the stool. But in general pans, it takes 8-10 litres of water. Pan is made of Chini-mitti, fiber glass or mosaic concrete. Among them chini-mitti pan is the best option. It can last long if prevented from breaking. Fiber glass pan is lighter and unbreakable. It costs comparitively lower than chini-mitti pan. Mosaic pan is the cheapest one.
   
 
Waterseal attatched with the pan is also of a different type. It is constructed in such a way that it always stores 20mm water. It stops bad odour gas generated in the pits to come out.
   
4. Drains ::
 
Drain is normally made of bricks. In special case PVC pipes are also used. Initially stool is transfered to the pit through one drain. When first pit becomes full then second drain is opened after closing first one. This way stool starts going to the other pit and first pit is left for drying.
   
5. Cover ::
 
The cover of the pits are generally of RCC.In this punning of 8mm rod is done at the distance of 6" from both the direction. In special case wooden covers can also be used.
 
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